This glossary of terms can give you more certainty as you learn with UProcess.
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Demi-permanent hair color is hair color that contains an alkaline agent other than ammonia (e.g.ethanolamine, sodium carbonate) and, while always employed with a developer, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in that developer may be lower than used with a permanent hair color. Since the alkaline agents employed in demi-permanent colors are less effective in removing the natural pigment of hair than ammonia these products provide no lightening of hair's color during dyeing. As the result, they cannot color hair to a lighter shade than it was before dyeing and are less damaging to hair than their permanent counterpart.
"The Fischer-Saller Scale, named after Eugen Fischer and Karl Saller, is used in physical anthropology and medicine to determine the shades of hair color. The scale uses the following designations: A to G (blond), H, J (blond brown), K to V (brown), W (brown black), X, Y (black) and Roman numerals I to V (red) and VI (faint red)." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fischer%E2%80%93Saller_scale
"Hair highlighting/lowlighting refers to changing a person's hair color, using lightener or haircolor to color hair strands. There are four basic types of highlights: foil highlights, hair painting, frosting, and chunking. Highlights can be done in natural or unnatural colors. Color highlights come in four categories: temporary, semi-permanent, demi-permanent and permanent. Hair lightened with bleach is permanent." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_highlighting
History of Hair Color
The first successful commercial Hair Color Product was invented in 1909 by Eugene Schueller in Paris, France. He made hair color in his kitchen by night and sold it door to door during the day. Even in 1909 Women did not want gray hair. During this time there were very few salons. Most hair color was performed secretly in the privacy of the home.
Fifty years later, hair color was still not the main focus of the Beauty Salon Industry. The average salon client wanted weekly Shampoos & Sets and bi-yearly Permanent Waves. However, due to the popularity of Hollywood's Platinum Blond Starlets many Salon clients desired the blonde color trend. Hair Color and Lightening Products were extremely basic, often making Hair Coloring challenging and unnatural and could also damage the hair.
In the late 1960's women's desire for blonde services was created by Actress Farah Fawcett part of the original cast of TV's Series "Charlie's Angels”. The "70's” highlight trend was hugely popular and the "70's” was called the "Greatest Decade of Blondes”. Frostings performed with a rubber cap gave way to foil highlights making Blonde Highlight services easier for clients to maintain. With highlights the retouch service was only once every three months instead of every three weeks.
During the 1980's "Big & Bold Hair” was the fashion. Hair Color, Permanent Waves, Blow Dries and Shampoo & Sets still ruled in the Salons along with lots of foil highlighting services. Fashion was fun and exciting, being dictated by Pop Music Stars and the start of the first Music Videos on TV.
Clothing Fashion had movement, different shapes and curves, shoulder pads and altered waistlines. This new fashion gave Women presence to accompany their new position in the work force and shaped the way for those who wanted more independence. Deeper, richer hair colors gave them a new distinction; the general public was accepting enhanced hair color for the first time.
Women were no longer limited to just covering gray hair, they were creating a new fashion focus for their persona by choosing a fashion color shade. Younger girls were stepping out for the first time in Punk Rock Colors such as Pink, Yellow, Blue and Purple.
The newly relaxed fashion of the "1990's” ended the "Big & Bold Hair” decade. Shoulder pads disappeared from women's clothing. As the clothes got straighter and more business casual so did the hair. Set hair was passé. Most women preferred Blow Dry Styling, freeing the client from Permanent Waves and weekly Shampoo & Set services. This, along with the fact that most American women were working full time, gave the salon client time and money to try out hair color as a fashion accessory.
The technology of the New Millennium has allowed greater experimentation in who we are as individuals. The Computer & Internet Age has opened an exciting and endless world of Fashion from around the World at our fingertips. Women are looking younger longer, 40 is the new 20. No woman wants to have dull, lifeless gray hair. Hair Coloring is now 60-75% of the salon's business. Every day Hair Color Manufacturers are introducing new sophisticated hair color products with superior technology to deliver results never before imagined. Hair color has come a long way in the past 100 years.
Human Hair Color
"Hair color is the pigmentation of hair follicles due to two types of melanin: eumelanin and pheomelanin. Generally, if more eumelanin is present, the color of the hair is darker; if less eumelanin is present, the hair is lighter. Levels of melanin can vary over time causing a person's hair color to change, and it is possible to have hair follicles of more than one color." - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_hair_color
Hydrogen Peroxide is often called a developer in the salon hair color market.
Professional Salon Hydrogen peroxide is different then the peroxide commonly used for medical purposes.
Hydrogen Peroxide is an acid and hair color is alkaline. Mixing Peroxide and hair color together creates an Oxidative reaction that opens the cuticle of the hair and bonds the color to the proteins found in the cortex of the hair.
Hydrogen peroxide is used in different strengths when mixing it with hair color or hair bleach. The higher the Volume density numbers the greater the energy to color and lighten the hair.
10 Volume or 3% is used for deposit only color processes
20 Volume or 6% is used to lighten one shade* and is best to use to color gray hair
30 Volume or 9% is used to lighten two shade levels*. Not recommended for coloring gray hair
40 Volume or 12% is used for lighten more than 2 levels*.
*Check your hair color manufactures levels of lift according to developer volume
Depending on the type of color and the purpose of the coloring different
Timings relate to different Volumes of Peroxide.
The energy (time) provided by the peroxide to develop the hair color in the hair is equal to the Volume of the peroxide.
10 Volume will activate hair color for 10 minutes. During this time the cuticle of the hair is being opened.After 10 minutes the color is depositing for 15 minutes in the cuticle or cortex depending on the size and strength of the cuticle.
20 Volume activates the hair color for 20 minutes and then the oxidative process gives way to the 15-minute color deposit process.
30 Volume activates hair color for 30 minutes. During this time the natural pigments in the cortex are lightened. Allow the color to develop for another 15 minutes for a full 45 minutes of development time.
40 Volume activates the hair color for 40 minutes. 40 Volume is the highest Volume that can be used safely on the scalp.Hair Color mixed with 40 Volume developers will remove natural pigments from the hair leaving the hair brassy. The color must remain on the hair 15 minutes longer in order to tone/color the hair. The total time for a color mixed with 40 Volume is 55 -60 minutes.
Clear Hydrogen Peroxide can loose it's effectiveness over time. The 20 Volume that the salon purchases in a gallon jug may be 15 Volume when the jug is half full.
15 Volume will not give you the gray coverage you desire and may not give the brightness of color or desired longevity.
Hydrogen peroxide buffered with small amounts of Salicylic or Phosphoric acid stay truer to volume throughout the life of the container. Often other oils or conditioners are added to give the buffered developer a creamy texture.
Modern hair color is chemically sophisticated; the color product is designed to work with the manufactures companion developer. For best results and for insurance purposes use the developer the color manufacture recommends.
pH stands for Power of Hydrogen or Particles of Hydrogen.
In Salon Chemical and Conditioning Services it is important to understand how the pH level of a product affects the hair .
pH ranges from 0 - 14. Healthy Hair has a pH of between 4.5 and 5.5
Distilled water has a pH of 7
pH numbers below 7 are acidic
pH numbers above 7 are alkaline (base)
Most hair conditioning products are acidic because acid closes the cuticle of the hair
Most hair color, perm and relaxers are alkaline because to do their work they must enter the cuticle and the cortex of the hair
The goal with any alkaline salon service is to assure that the hair is always returned to an acidic state after the service is finished.
Refer to "Cool Seasonal Palettes" in "The ATLAS" for pH charts for hair and salon chemicals
"Semi-permanent hair color has smaller molecules than temporary dyes. These dyes only partially penetrate the hair shaft. For this reason, the color will survive repeated washing, typically 4-5 shampoos or a few weeks. Semi-permanents contain no, or very low levels of developer, peroxide or ammonia, and are therefore safer for damaged or fragile hair. However, semi-permanents may still contain the possibly carcinogenic compound p-phenylenediamine or other such ingredients. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that in rats and mice chronically exposed to PPD in their diet, it simply depressed body weights, and no other clinical signs of toxicity were observed in several studies" - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_coloring
Structure of Human Hair
Human Hair Shaft Structure
The entirety of the visible part of the hair that grows out of the scalp.
Cuticle- The visible part of the hair shaft. It is made up of flat, durable cells that overlap one another and act as scaled armor for the rest of the hair shaft. This protective layer is responsible for hair texture. When the cells of the cuticle are in their proper flattened position they can protect the vulnerable inner layers of the hair from weather and other damaging elements.
Medulla- The innermost part of the hair. It is made up of tightly clustered cells that form a shaft through the very center of the hair. In some hair, the medulla is fragmented or absent altogether. Biologists do not yet fully understand the function of the medulla in human hair.